Late 1990s–post-9/11

Following the attacks of 9/11/01, the U.S./Mexico border becomes increasingly militarized.

In 2003, the Department of Justice’s Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) is dissolved and immigration is re-positioned as a national security issue. ICE – Immigration and Customs Enforcement – is established in 2003 under the Department of Homeland Security. Border crossings become more expensive and much more dangerous. As a result, it becomes riskier for migrant workers to travel with their families, with family separation a frequent and tragic result.


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